We lead off this edition of THE SUBMARINE REVIEW with a brief tribute to two leaders of the submarine community whom we have lost in the past few Admiral AI Whittle and Vice Admiral Levering Smith were both widely respected for their wise counsel and strong support. They will be sorely missed.
Our features of this issue come from addresses given at the Technology Symposium held in May and the Annual Symposium in June, and also include Vice Admiral Roger Bacon’s remarks at his retirement ceremony in March. The comments by Admiral Bruce DeMars and Vice Admiral Bill Owens both offer the cautious optimism of the challenge presented to the submarine operators and industry in the current environment of shrinking resources. Together with the address given by Mr. Ron O’Rour-ke, they are objective assessments of the issues being faced by the active-duty submarine leadership and what is being done to ensure that our nation gets the submarine future that it needs. As Vice Admiral Bacon left active service he reminded us of the profes-sionalism in submarining and of the wonderful friends that all of us have made within the submarine family.
The menu of articles and discussion topics in this edition also cover a number of subjects of immediate interest to the community. One of the most important subjects facing us all is the complex issue of submarine forward presence during peacetime. The matter is treated in both its advantages and its difficulties, and the problem faced in pinning force level goals to general naval presence objectives is squarely presented.
We also welcome our first piece from the surveillance system part of the undersea warfare community. We know that there is more to be said out there on that vital subject so we look forward to hearing more from operators, engineers, scientists and manufacturers. We all have a lot to learn about the interaction of submarines and the sophisticated systems used for detection in both deep water and littoral shallows.
Several articles address the future of the Submarine Force from the standpoint of these currently serving in the Force, with view of both the big picture and the waterfront concerns. In addition, Dick Bloomquist, the Navy’s expert on non-standard power plant designs, has given us an article with the historical perspective of air-independent propulsion. He also brings us up-to-date on the developments in the field of AlP.
There is no World War n patrol report in this issue of TilE SUBMARINE REVIEW, not because nothing happened in the summer of 1943~ but because of an editorial mixup on the selection of an appropriate patrol. In its place, however, there is a great first-hand account of an incident on an American subma-rine operating in European waters during World War I. Not the least point to note is that the submarine of the story was on an anti-submarine patrol in the Irish Sea-looking for German U-Boats that were then working at the terminal ends of the North Atlantic resupply routes, after the convoys across the ocean had dispersed. We should all be reminded that, although submarining has never been easy, the early guys in those little 550 ton boats were hardy sailors as they went down into the sea in their ships.
FROM THE PRESIDENT
he April to June quarter has been busy. The national T structure was enhanced by the stand-up of our Northern California Chapter with Joel Greenberg as President. 0 u r May Submarine Technology Symposium at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory was, for the sixth year, a sell-out success. The theme focused on technologies to enhance the role of submarines in the Naval Expeditionary Force/Joint Task Force. Five half-day sessions addressed Submarine Roles and Missions, chaired by Dick Chapman, Director, Undersea Warfare, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport; Command, Control, Communications, and Surveillance, chaired by RADM Jerry Holland, President, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association Educational Foundation; Joint Littoral Operations, chaired by Dr. Craig Dorman, Director, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute; Joint Strike and Strategic Deterrence, chaired by Dr. Dick Garritson, Department Head, Aeronautics Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory; and Maintaining Battlespace Dominance Through Readiness and Affordability, chaired by Charlie Stuart, Director, Maritime Systems Technology Office, Advanced Research Projects Agency. I served as moderator of the concluding Roundtable, a very frank and open discussion among VADM Hank Chiles, COMSUBLANT; RADM Tom Ryan, Director of Submarine Warfare, N-87; RADM Walt Cantrell, Commander, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command; RADM Bill Hooley, Director, Test and Evaluation and Technology Requirements, OP-91; Dr. Art Bisson, Director, Technology Directorate, Office of Naval Research; Tom Handel, Deputy, Office of Naval Intelligence; and Ed Zdankiewicz, Deputy Assistant SECNA V, Undersea and Mine Warfare.
The annual June NSL Symposium was likewise a great success, with participation from both Navy and Submarine Force leader-ship, and a great turnout from the membership. For that event, we selected as “Submarine Hero of the Year” our own Pat Lewis, an honor richly deserved. From its very inception, the League has been Pat’s baby. For many years Pat’s basement was the League’s office. Until very recently, every issue of TilE SUBMARINE REVIEW was typed and formatted personally by Pat. Her dedication to the League and her influence on the formation of its character are typified by a photograph of the charter Board of Directors, with Pat squarely in the middle. We are all beneficiaries of her enthusiasm and selfless support.
If, out in the provinces, you are actively pursuing our charter task to educate the general public about the need for a strong, modem submarine force, here are some words on “Why subma-rines?” that may be useful in your campaign.
The reliable and survivable sea-based Trident Weapons System provides our nation with a powerful strategic deterrent to any current or likely-emergent nuclear, biological, or chemical warfare threat.
By its very presence, or the perception of its presence, the nuclear attack submarine (SSN) represents a conventional deterrent of such magnitude to give pause to any potential aggressor. Precision strikes, launched covertly (the invaluable element of surprise), could destroy key features of infrastructure and disrupt command, control, and communications capabilities.
By virtue of its inherent stealth, only a nuclear submarine can collect and provide, covertly, to the National Command Authority and to the Joint Task Force Commander critical real-time, accurate intelligence and early warning on a continuous and sustained basis, in advance of and during hostilities.
BATTLE SPACE DOMINANCE
Full-spectrum sensors, mobility, covertness and firepower combine to allow the nuclear submarine to serve as the eyes, ears, and first line of defense/forward offensive element of the Joint Task Force (JTF). From the open ocean to the confines of the littoral environment, the multi-mission nuclear submarine enables successful JTF operations. From the covert deployment of offensive mines to contain threat forces, to defeating the shallow water diesel submarine, the SSN is a versatile weapons system continuously on call and available to the JTF Commander.
As fully integrated units of the JTF, submarines provide the capability to conduct covert cruise missile strikes from remote launch positions, along approach tracks not otherwise available to the Force, without placing air crews at risk. Submarines may conduct short range launch from within the reaction time of air defense systems, targeted against those systems, to increase the survivability of follow-on launches from other platforms further at sea. And the covert insertion and extraction by submarine of Special Operations Forces may be key to the subsequent amphibi-ous landing of a Naval expeditionary force element of a JTF.
The full range of timely logistics support is a key element of any military operation. Protection of the sea lines of communica-tions by SSNs from load-out port to delivery ensures the success of strategic sealift.
The modem nuclear submarine is an extremely versatile and cost effective weapons system. It is unique among warfighting platforms for its high offensive-to-defensive weapons ratio. The capabilities of submarines to perform a wide range of tasks now recognized as integral to Joint Operations were always present, and are now available to the JTF Commander. The Fleet and Theater CINCs know!
THE SUBMARINE REVIEW
THE SUBMARINE REVIEW is a quarterly publication of the Naval Submarine League. It is a forum for discussion of submarine matters. Not only are the ideas of its members to be reflected in the REVIEW, but those of others as well, who are interested in submarines and submarining.
Articles for this publication will be accepted on any subject closely related to submarine matters. Their length should be a maximum of about 2500 words. The content of articles is of first importance in their selection for the REVIEW. Editing of articles for clarity may be necessary, since important ideas should be readily understood by the readers of the REVIEW.
A stipend of up to $200.00 will be paid for each major article published. Annually, three articles are selected for specialrecognition and an honorarium ofup to $400.00will be awarded to the authors. Articles accepted for publication in the REVIEW become the property of the Naval Submarine League. The views expressed by the authors are their own and are not to be construed to be those of the Naval Submarine League. In those instances where the NSL has taken and published an official position or view, specific reference to that fact will accompany the article.
Comments on articles and brief discussion items are welcomed to make the SUBMARINE REVIEW a dynamic reflection of the League’s interest in submarines. The success of this magazine is up to those persons who have such a dedicated interest in submarines that they want to keep alive the submarine past, help with present submarine problems and be influential in guiding the future of submarines in the U.S. Navy.
Articles should be submitted to the Editor, SUBMARINE REVIEW, P .O. Box 1146, Annandale, VA 22003.