Reprinted with permission from AMI HOT NEWS; an internet publication of AMI international, PO Box 40. Bremerton, Washington, 98337.
From the October 2008 Issue
INTERNATIONAL -World Missile Developments
RUSSIA: On 11 October 2008, AMI received information that Russia has once again conducted a submarine-launched ballistic missile test in the Pacific Ocean.
The R-29RGU (Sineva) missile, NATO designation SS-N-23, was fired from the Delta IV class ballistic missile submarine TULA in the Barents Sea and was targeted near the equator. This is the first time Russia has tested a missile in the Pacific that did not target the Kura test range on the Kamchatka Peninsula.
The Sineva is the latest variant of the SS-N-23 missile and is powered by a solid-fuel rocket motor that is based on the land-based SS-23 missile. Sineva officially entered service in July 2007, has a range of approximately 8300km (5 I 46mi), ten multiple independent reentry vehicles (MIRV), better penetration aids (decoys) and resistance to electromagnetic pulses (EMP). Additionally the improved guidance system and onboard computer provide increased accuracy over its predecessors. Maximum launch depth is 55m (180ft).
This new test is just one in a recent series of tests believed to be in response to the proposed anti-missile shield that the US and Poland have agreed to.
TAIWAN -Large Program Package Approved, No Submarines
On 03 October 2008, the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) notified Congress of the possible Foreign Military Sale (FMS) ofUS$6.5B of weapons to Taiwan.
In a continued effort to modernize its military, the weapons deal, if approved by Congress, will include the following systems and accessories:
30 AH-64D Apache Longbow attack helicopters (US$2.532B)
- 69 T700-GE-70 ID turbine engines.
- 17 AN/APG-78 fire control radars and AN/APR-48 radio frequency interferometers.
- 1,000 Hellfire Longbow air-to-surface missiles.
- 66 M299 Hellfire launchers
- 35 Stinger captive flight trainers
330 Patriot PAC-3 missiles (USS3.18)
- 4 AN/MPQ-65 radar sets
- 2 tactical command stations
- 2 information and coordination centrals
- 6 communication replay groups
- 4 engagement control stations
- 24 launching stations
- Plus additional associated minor equipment
Upgrades to Taiwan’s four E-2T aircraft (USS250M)
- This upgrade will consist of upgrades to the avionics, navigation and electrical systems as well as the Joint Tactical Distribution System.
32 UGM-84L submarine-launched Harpoon anti-ship missiles (US$200M)
- 2 UTM-84 Harpoon block II exercise missiles
- 2 advanced Harpoon weapons control stations
- 36 Harpoon containers
- 2 UTM-84XD encapsulated Harpoon certification and training vehicles
- Plus spares, documentation and technical assists
Spare parts for various aircraft (US$334M)
Although this deal is significant and much needed by the Taiwanese military, still absent from the package was the long planned for and desired diesel-electric submarines as well as UH-60 Blackhawk helicopters.
Specifically regarding the submarine deal, AMI’s sources indicate that the Taiwanese LoR for phase I (design and construc-tion) was forwarded to the US in late 2007. DSCA has not responded to the LoR and it now appears that it could be further delayed by the congressional freeze of June 2008 and the larger political issues surrounding the total US defense aid package to Taiwan.
Assuming the congressional freeze is lifted by early 2009 and the US responds to the LoR, a decision on the source selection could be achieved by 20 I 0 at the earliest. Even with a successful outcome in Phase I, AM I believes that it will still be difficult at best for the Yuan to approve the construction phase of the program due to its cost. There is also still much resistance to the sale within the US itself. If the ROCN and MND can convince the Yuan to purchase the submarines and US resistance (much from the US Navy) softens, it will probably take several years for approval, with a construction contract occurring around 2013 at the earliest.
VARIOUS DID YOU KNOW?
ECUADOR -On 05 September 2008, the Ecuadorian Navy Type 209 submarine SHYRI arrived at Chile’s ASMAR Talcahuano yard to begin its two year overhaul.
PAKISTAN -On 26 September 2008, the Pakistani navy (PN) completed customer acceptance testing of the third Khalid (Agosta 90B) class submarine, PNS HAZMA (S 139).
MALAYSIA -On 09 October 2008, the Royal Malaysian Navy’s (RMN) second Scorpene class submarine was floated at Navantia’s Cartegena shipyard.
From tire November 2008 Issue
TURKEY -Submarine Rescue and Towing Ship Project RFP Purchase Dates Extended to 31 December 2008
On 04 November 2008, the Turkish Undersecretariat for Defense Industries (SSM) announced that the Rfr purchase dates for the Submarine Rescue Mother Ship (MOSHIP) and Rescue and Towing Ship (RATSHIP) projects have been extended to 31 December 2008. The final date to respond to the Rfrs has also been extended to 31 March 2009.
Interested companies in the two projects can contact the Turkish SSM at:
Ministry of National Defence
Undersecretariat for Defence Industries
Ziyabey Caddesi 21. Sokak No:4 (06520) Balgat!Ankara
Tel: +90 312 411 9000 -400 ISDN
Fax: +90 312 411 9386
Head of Naval Platforms -Scrdar Demirel
Project Manager Auxiliary Ship Group -Neemi Kaldas
Tel:+ 90 312 411 9278
Consistent with recent naval programs, the majority of work will be completed at either Golcuk or Istanbul Naval Shipyards or a private Turkish yard in order to keep the shipbuilding industry employed. If a foreign supplier is chosen for these projects they will probably provide design, construction and integration assistance as well as some of the engineering and electronic subsystems for both programs.
The MOSHIP could possibly displace up to 5,000 tons with a platform I 0 meters in width and a minimum of 300sq milers of deck space needed to host equipment such as a Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV) and Submarine Rescue Chamber (SRC). Two of the most modern MOSHIP designs on the international market arc the Singaporean Submarine Support and Rescue Vessel (SSR V) by ST Marine/James Fisher Defence currently under construction, and the South Korean Cheonghaejin class ARS by Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME) which was completed in 1996. Turkey may look at both of these options as they arc they latest designs on the market for this type of ship.
With responses due back to the SSM by 31 March 2009, a preferred supplier could be identified for both projects as early as 20 I 0 and both construction contracts in place by 2011. The MOSHIP could enter service by 2013 and the two RATSHIPS by 2012.
ITALY-New Repair and Salvage Ship in the Pipeline
In late October 2008, AM I sources indicated that the Italian Navy (IN) was finalizing the requirements for a new class of submarine rescue ship (ARS). The new ship would replace the aging ITS ANTEO commissioned in I 980. Additionally, the IN is planning for a long-range submarine support (LRSS) platform.
ANTEO currently operates with a two person McCann rescue chamber as well as the 12 person SR V300 rescue vehicle built by Drass Galeazzi.
The new vessel will likely be a bit larger than the ANTEO, offering a more stable platform while continuing to operate the SRV300 vehicle able to conduct rescues in depths of up to 600 meters ( 1968) feet). It will also likely have a helicopter platform, bow thrusters and two minor caliber guns.
Other systems on the new ARS will likely include a multi-beam side-scan sonar system, one surface search and navigation radar as well as the capability to operate autonomous or remotely operated vehicles (AUV/ROV) to aid in submarine rescues.
AMI sources indicate that the requirements document should be complete by early 2009 and a Request for Proposals (RFP) will be issued by mid-2009. Assuming that a preferred supplier and construction contract is in place by 2010, the single unit of the class could commission as early as 2012.
In regards to the LRSS, the platform has not been defined yet, but may be as simple as a towed barge with repair and support facilities, or as complex as a new class of submarine tender (AS), capable of all aspects of submarine repair and rearmament.
Due to the infancy of the LRSS program, AMI believes that the requirements will not be finalized until 20 I 0 with an RFP being available in 2012.
LIBYA -Reviewing Surface Combatant Options
(Editor’s note: submarine comments ill paragraphs 5, 7 and 8)
From late October through late November 2008, AM I received information from multiple sources that the Libyan Navy is still looking to replace its aging surface and submarine fleets. Information received indicates that Libya is also considering acquiring Western equipment, a departure from the predominantly Russian hardware now in service.
President Muammar Qadhafi visited Russia, Belarus and Ukraine in early November. During his trip, Qadhafi stated that competition between Russian and Western arms manufacturers is creating a rivalry that will allow Libya to receive the most modem weapons at the best price possible.
Back in April 2008, then Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Libya in hopes of bolstering cooperation between the two nations. At that time, Putin agreed to forgive US$4.5B in debt in exchange for lucrative deals in energy and arms. This deal has resulted in a multi-billion dollar railway project as well as deals to help develop gas and oil fields. However, as of this writing no firm arms deals have materialized.
Sources close to AM I indicate that the Libyan Navy (LN) has expressed interested in surface combatants such as the Russian Project 20382 Tiger class corvette, French Gowind corvette and Combattante class fast attack craft (FAC) as well as the Croatian 62-Meter corvette design. Italy, with its recent sale of an ATR-402M P maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) to the LN as well as recent investments in commercial infrastructure projects, must also be under consideration for new surface combatants by the Libyans.
In regards to submarines, there appears to be interest in the Russian Project 686 Kilo class submarines and possibly the French Scorpene and newly designed Andrasta class submarines.
In an effort to possibly sweeten the deal with Russian, reports indicate that Libya may have offered the use of the naval base at Benghazi in an effort to sway the Russians to make a better offer on naval ships in return for a forward operating base in the Mediterranean. AMI believes that the naval base offer by Libya may in fact be a fabricated story by Russia rather than a serious offer by Libyan government.
The recent reporting demonstrates that the LN is jockeying for a position within the government in order to get the best deal to replace its submarine and surface combatant forces.
And the sea service is running out of time. Its I 960s-vintage Foxtrot submarines and Koni class corvettes need to be replaced in the near term. With Russia and France to a small degree (FACs only) being historical suppliers and Italy being recently involved in sale of a MPA to the LN and other Libyan commercial projects; AM I expects that all three of these countries will likely be considered as suppliers to meet the LN’s future requirements .
The winner for both programs will more than likely be determined by the best price, offset agreements and through-life support packages. These programs could move forward as early as 2009. In regards to the Combattante II, Nanuchka and Osa FAC force; if the sea service intends to replace these vessels with a new F AC, a program would probably not start until the middle of the next decade.
AUSTRALIA-First Funding for Future Submarine (SEA 1000)
On 06 November 2008, the Australian Parliamentary Secretary of Defense for Procurement, Mr. Greg Combet, addressed the Submarine Institute of Australia. In the speech, the Secretary announced that US$4.67M had been authorized to begin studies for the Royal Australian Navy’s (RAN) next generation submarine under Project SEA 1000.
*(Editor’s Note: See entire speech in this issue of THE SUBMARINE REVIEW).
The studies arc being taken in order to support early decisions on critical design aspects that include battery designs and conceptual designs for weapon payload handling and storage. These studies are currently being conducted by the Defense Science and Technology organization (DSTO) and other organizations such as ASC. These studies will be complete by 2009 in order to start the concept design phase in 20 I 0. First pass approval for the design phase by the National Security Committee is scheduled for 2011.
The Secretary also announced that a SEA I 000 project office of 17 people is being established and will be expanded in the coming years. The SEA I 000 office will probably be in place no later than 20 I 0. Information received on 21 November indicates that a new underwater test facility was also commissioned at the DSTO in Melbourne in order to assist in the submarines development.
This latest announcement was preceded by the 2007 Kokoda Foundation study regarding the RAN’s undersea warfare requirements for the 2025-2050 timeframe. This study affirmed the need for a larger, more advanced Submarine Force to counter the growing threat posed by China, as well as the many other navies in the region that have recently begun to acquire advanced submarines. The study concluded that the RAN needs a Submarine Force double that of the six-unit Collins class currently in service. Within ays of the Kokoda study, the Defense Minister gave the official go ahead for SEA 1000. The first new design submarine is scheduled to enter service in 2025.
RANCE -New Andrasta Submarine Design for World Market
In October 2008, AMI received information at Euronaval 2008 that DCNS was promoting its latest diesel electric submarine design for export on the world market. Known as ANDRASTA, the new 49-meter (160.7ft) submarine is optimized for operations in coastal waters, an increasingly likely theater of operations for submarines in the future
The 855-ton submarines will have a maximum diving depth of greater than 200 meters, a range of 3,000 nautical miles, submerged endurance of up to five days and a complement of 19 with additional space for eight personnel. It will also be able to deploy the latest weapons including heavy weight torpedoes and surface to surface missiles (SSMs).
The development of ANDRASTA draws on design solutions that have been tested in the successful Scorpene exported to Chile, Malaysia and India. Sources at DCNS have indicated that the AND RAST A can be built at reduced construction and ownership costs when compared to other designs available on the international market.
At 855-tons and a small crew of only 19 personnel, this submarine could become very attractive to navies that continue to delay future submarine programs due to extremely limited acquisition, operations and personnel budgets. In addition, the ANDRAS-T A could be very attractive to navies that either operate in restricted waters or intend to develop a first-time capability to operate submarines. Some of these potential opportunities could exist with Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Libya, Pakistan, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
From the December 2008 Issue
PAKISTAN-Deal Close for Type 214 Submarines
In late November 2008, AM I received information that the Pakistani Navy (PN) is apparently close to completing a deal for three new construction submarines to satisfy the sea service’s requirement for additional Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) submarines. Information received suggests that the PN has chosen the ThyssenKrupp Marine Howaldtswerke Deutsche Werft (HOW) Type 214 over the DCNS Marlin (Scorpene), the only two competi-tors for the program.
The deal calls for three units of the Type 214 design to be built at Pakistan’s Karachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Works (KSEW) for around US$ I 8, which probably also includes minor modifications to the shipyard. Sources indicate that Pakistan has formally agreed to the purchase of the submarines and that all technical specifications have been finalized. A construction contract is expected in early 2009.
n regards to the DCNS Marlin (Scorpene), press reporting indicates that the French offer was for three AIP units at a price-tag of US$1.28, although this price has not been confirmed. There was also some concern in Pakistan that the sale of the Scorpene could have met resistance in France, similar to the Agosta 908. Similarly, there most assuredly would have been resistance from India, which is under contract to build eight units of the Scorpene design for the Indian Navy. Pakistan, which has seen multiple international embargoes on arms imports over the past decades, may have determined that the German solution carried less risk politically than the French alternative.
Assuming that a contract is in place by early 2009, the first submarine is scheduled for delivery 64 months after contract signing followed by units two and three at 12 month intervals. Two additional units could be ordered at a later date as the PN has acknowledged publicly that it has a standing requirement for eight total submarines.
EGYPT-Still Looking For a New Submarine
In late November 2008, AM I received information that the Egyptian Navy (EN) was in negotiations with ThyssenKrupp Marine Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (H DW) for the purchase of three Type 214 submarines (some sources indicate possibly Type 209s). The deal is reportedly worth an estimated USS I .88 (US$600M per unit).
Egypt, with its aging force of four Chinese-built Improved Romeo class submarines commissioned from I 982 through I 984, has been considering its options since the I 990s. During the decade, the EN apparently considered new construction options including German Type 209s, the French/Spanish Scorpene, French Agosta 908, Dutch Moray and Russian Kilo as well as the used Dutch Zwaardvis class. The latest proposal for used vessels occurred in 2005 when German Defense Minister Peter Struck offered two type 206A submarines that were decommissioning from the German Navy.
However, financing for replacement submarines was never secured due to higher national priorities. When considering Egypt’s minuscule procurement funding levels, Egypt historically has been forced to upgrade its forces through United States Foreign Military Assistance (FMA) programs. All of the services compete for the US$ I .3B US Military Aid Package. Additionally, these funds can only be used for US systems, forcing the Egyptians to source new platforms from the US as witnessed by the recent procurement of three Fast Missile Craft (FMC) from the VT Halter Marine. The only other alternative is for the Egyptian Armed Forces is to find non-US suppliers that are willing to finance the purchase with very generous terms for the Egyptian Government.
Egypt, with its aging Submarine Force, no doubt feels the pressure from its Eastern Mediterranean neighbors in Israel, Greece, Turkey and Algeria, which are all operating or getting ready to take delivery of modern submarines. Regional naval force developments are pushing the EN to act as soon as possible, which is probably the basis for the 2005 discussions on the used Type 206As from the German Navy. However, the age of the Type 206s (commissioned in the 1970s) probably convinced the sea service that a modern new construction solution is needed in order to field a relevant undersea warfare force in the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, leading to the consideration of the Type 214.
Although negotiations are now underway for the Type 2 I 4s, a deal is probably a long way off due to Egypt’s very tight procurement budget. If this deal docs move forward, ThyssenKrupp Marine’s sales are marketing ann, Marine Force International, will have to put together an extremely beneficial financing solution, an alternative countertrade/offset package or combination of both in order to close the deal. One can not also discount the offer of the used German Type 206s a second time.
Other alternatives for the EN appear to be slim at best unless the sea service can find a way for new hulls to be built in a US yard, thus qualifying the program for funding under a US FMA solution.
INDIA-Second Submarine Linc (P76) RfP Rc-sked for Mid-2009
In mid-December 2008, AM I received information that the Requests for Proposals (Rfl>s) for the second submarine line under Project 76 will be pushed back to mid-2009. This date continues to slip as it was originally intended for release by the end of 2008. Project 76 is for a new class of conventionally powered attack/guided missile attack submarines (S S/SSG) with a vertical launch (VL) capability in order to fire BrahMos missiles.
AMI’s source indicates that the four submarine designs now under consideration arc the Navantia S-80A, HDW’s Type 214, a DCNS Super Scorpene and the Fincantieri/Rubin S-1000, which is based on the Russian Amur 1650. The earlier offer of the Larsen and Toubro (L&T) Ltd/Russian Amur 950 Hump Back appears to have been dropped from consideration. AM f’s source also indicates that the S-80A, Type 214, Super Scorpene and S-1000 design options presented to the Navy showed the option to install a plug with either four or eight vertical launch cells in order to host the BrahMos missile, similar to the Russian Rubin Amur 950 design.
With the Rfl> date continuing to slip, a final decision on the design will probably be delayed until at least 2011 with a construction contract in place by 2013. The new submarines will be part of India’s second submarine line, in other words, two distinct programs for constructing conventionally powered submarines in country.
SOUTH KOREA-Daewoo Wins Type 214 and Hanjin Wins PKX-As
In mid-December 2008, AMI’s sources indicated that South Korea’s Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) selected Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME) to build one unit (unit 4) of the KSS-2 Type 214 submarine and Hanjin Heavy Industries & Construction (HHIC) to build a further four units (5-8) of the PKX·A fast attack craft. DARPA’s decision comes in the midst of ongoing technical problems with both vessel types.
DSM E’s selection marks its return to the submarine manufacturing business. DSM E previously constructed eight of the nine 1,400-ton Chang Bo-Go class KSS-1 (Type 209) submarines, but lost the Batch I contract for three 1,800-ton Son Won-II class KSS-2 (Type 214) submarines to its main domestic rival, Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI), in 2000. DSME and HHI will compete for the construction of the remaining five units of the Son Won-II class with DAPA requesting bids for each individual unit. A total of nine units are expected to be commissioned by 2018.
HHIC’s selection for the Batch IH PKX-A contract marks an end to naval shipbuilding inactivity at H H IC whose last construction was the single PKX-A Batch I unit completed in June 2007. The Batch II contract for three additional units (2-4) was awarded in 2007 to STX Shipbuilding initially slated for commencement in 2009. Batch Ill construction is scheduled to begin in 2010.
The two procurement programs arc firming up as the most highly publicized in regards to technical problems of any South Korean vessels in recent memory. During the closing months of 2008, AM I learned the first class ROKS SON-WON-IL continued to suffer noise problems, largely due to alleged design faults in the ThyssenKrupp Marine Howaldtswcrke-Deutschc Werft (HOW) Type 214 design. Both South Korean and Greek type 2 I 4’s have suffered nearly identical problems. While most problems in the South Korean Type 214 have been reportedly resolved, the noise level has yet to be reduced to levels promised by HOW. On 22 February 2008, HOW was fined EUR 2.87M by DAPA for ongoing technical problems. In November, a South Korean National Assembly report demanded price reduction of the remaining six Type 214’s on the basis HDW was using the South Korean market to correct faults in the Type 214 to increase the submarine’s overall international export potential. As of this writing, it is uncertain if DAPA received a price reduction for the fourth unit when it was contracted to DSME.
As for the PKX-A ‘s, first of class ROKS YUN YEONG-HA, has been unable to operate effectively when sailing above 20 knots, half the required speed of 40 knots. Problems have been attributed to the nexus between the water jet propulsion system and the hull’s design. While commissioned on 17 December 2008, AMI has learned YUN YEONG-HA will initially function as a test bed for the development of a revised design which is expected to be reflected in future construction. However, YUN YEONG-HA’s combat management system (CMS), the first indigenously developed CMS, has performed successfully. The CMS was developed jointly by the Agency for Defense Development (ADD) and Samsung Thales.
The two vessel programs are considered urgent for the ROKN. Recent offset agreements with HOW, including those associated with submarine weapons systems, arc intended to be applied to the indigenously designed 3,500-ton KSS-3 submarine which is scheduled to be laid down in 2011. Both DSME and HHI are jointly designing the KSS-3. Meanwhile, the PKX-A is on a tight schedule to replace the aging fleet of Chamsuri class patrol boats. Unlike its predecessor, the PKX-A was designed to confront navies beyond that of North Korea.
VARIOUS DID YOU KNOW?
Singapore: On 28 November 2008, the Republic of Singapore Navy’s (RSN) submarine support and rescue ship, SWIFT RES-CUE, was launched at ST Marine.
SOUTH KOREA: On 02 December 2008, the second type 214 submarine, ROKS JEONG JI, was commissioned into the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN).